The Ten Commandments are recorded in Exodus 20. They were given to Moses by God and written on tablets of stone. According to IMDb, the classic 1956 movie “The Ten Commandments” (staring Charlton Heston) is the seventh highest grossing film of all time!

The Ten Commandments were central to the Mosaic Law but were only a part of the Old Covenant. That “old” covenant is fully recorded in Exodus and Leviticus as it was given to God’s chosen people – Israel. It is subsequently repeated and summarized by Moses in Deuteronomy, due to the fact a whole new generation had arisen after the forty years of wandering in the wilderness…they had not been present for the original giving of the law.

So do the Ten Commandments hold sway with the Christian today?

how Scripture answers "Are Christians under the Ten Commandments today?"

Christians are no longer under the Ten Commandments1,2,3,4,5,6,7. During his ministry, Jesus made it clear that the gospel and the kingdom of God was replacing the Old Covenant1. The Ten Commandments as part of the Mosaic Law or ‘Old Covenant’ were abolished4 and replaced in the person and sacrifice of Jesus Christ3,6 and the “better”5 things (e.g. greater glory2, justification by faith3, peace4, hope5, access by all7, etc.) that He represents.

the answer above is based on and footnoted with the following Scripture Blocks
1
The Law and the Prophets were until John; since then the good news of the kingdom of God is preached, and everyone forces his way into it. But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one dot of the Law to become void.
The Law and Prophets were until John [the Baptist], but since him the good news of the kingdom of God is preached, and everyone forces their way into it.  But the Law is still the word of God.
During the public ministry of Christ when he is sharing various truths and parables.
How does it inform?

Jesus heralds a new covenant to replace the old covenant that was “until John” and describes it as the gospel of the “kingdom of God.”

Does it apply? Yes

2
Now if the ministry of death, carved in letters on stone, came with such glory that the Israelites could not gaze at Moses’ face because of its glory, which was being brought to an end, will not the ministry of the Spirit have even more glory? For if there was glory in the ministry of condemnation, the ministry of righteousness must far exceed it in glory.
Now if the old Law of death, carved on stone and coming to an end, came with such a glory that the Israelites could not look at Moses’ face.  Will not the new Law of the Spirit have even greater glory?  For the glory of the law of condemnation is far exceeded by the glory of the law of righteousness.

Paul is commending the Christians in Corinth by drawing a distinction between the Old Law – written on stone – with the New Law of the Spirit – written on hearts – in which they labor (3:1-2).  

How does it inform?

Paul is contrasting the two laws, confirming the end of the old covenant (using placeholders of “death”, “condemnation”, “lessor glory”), replaced by the new covenant (aka “Spirit”, “righteousness”, “greater glory”). He contrasts the two throughout the chapter, speaking of the Old Law as “come to have no glory at all” (vs 10) and the New Law being “permanent” (vs 11).

Does it apply? Yes

3
So then, the law was our guardian until Christ came, in order that we might be justified by faith. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian, for in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God, through faith.
Therefore, we were entrusted to the law until Christ came – now being justified by faith.  Now that faith has come, we are no longer under the law, for in Jesus Christ we are all sons of God through faith.

Paul’s letter to the Galatians encouraging them to not be led away by a “different gospel” (1:6).  He shares his personal testimony (1:10-2:10) and other events including his rebuke of Peter and Barnabas who had been swayed by Jewish Christians holding Mosaic traditions above the command of Christ (2:11-14).

How does it inform?

Christ replaced the law [of Moses].

Does it apply? Yes

4
For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one and has broken down in his flesh the dividing wall of hostility by abolishing the law of commandments expressed in ordinances, that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace, and might reconcile us both to God in one body through the cross, thereby killing the hostility.
He [Jesus] is our peace, making us one by his flesh.  The Old Law expressed in commandments that had separated us is abolished.  In Him, we are one man in place of two, reconciled together to God in one body through the peace of the cross.

Paul is writing to the “saints that are in Ephesus” (1:1), but Gentile Christians in particular (2:11).  He is reminding them of this grace that they have from God and the fact that they are now “fellow citizens…of the household of God” (2:19).  Ultimately, his plea to them is to walk in a manner worthy of the calling” (4:1).

How does it inform?

The old “law of commandments” as been abolished.

Does it apply? Yes

5
For on the one hand, a former commandment is set aside because of its weakness and uselessness (for the law made nothing perfect); but on the other hand, a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God.
It’s true that an old law has been abolished due to its weakness and inability to perfect or complete anyone, but now a better hope is present which allows us to draw close to God.
This chapter introduces the superiority of Jesus’ priesthood (order of Melchizedek) over that of Aaron’s (tribe of Levi). This “makes Jesus the guarantor of a better covenant” (vs 22).
How does it inform?

The Old Law was not sufficient to perfect (complete) man’s relationship with God.

Does it apply? Yes

6
To the Jews I became as a Jew, in order to win Jews. To those under the law I became as one under the law (though not being myself under the law) that I might win those under the law. To those outside the law I became as one outside the law (not being outside the law of God but under the law of Christ) that I might win those outside the law.

To Jews I [Paul] was like a Jew in order to influence them. To those under the [Mosiac] law I became like one under the law in order to influence them (though I of course wasn’t actually under the law).  To those Gentiles not under the law I became like them (though never being outside the law of God but always under the law of Christ) that I might win over those outside the law.

Paul is admonishing the Corinthians throughout 8:1-11:1  to temper their “rights” and freedoms in Christ for the sake of others’ conscience.  His main point through these chapters is that they should “endure anything rather than put an obstacle in the way of the gospel of Christ” (9:12).

How does it inform?

Paul’s approach to preaching and winning souls to Christ makes it clear the “law” (Mosaic law with ten commandments) was replaced by the “law of God” or “law of Christ”.

Does it apply? Yes

7
But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction:

God’s righteousness is now clear apart from the [old] law –  which the Law and the Prophets themselves bear witness to – which is faith in Jesus Christ for eveyone that believes.  For there is no distinction: [all have access].

Paul’s letter to the Roman Christians making the broad point of equal access to this new covenant in Jesus Christ.  All have sinned (vs 23) and all now have access to God’s “grace through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ” (vs 24).

How does it inform?

While the Mosaic Law (and the Prophets) bear witness to it, they have been replaced in Christ Jesus. Paul’s point being that all now have access to God’s grace, no longer just the Jews.

Does it apply? Yes

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