Priests of God are most often associated with the Catholic religion. That tradition has specific qualifications to become a priest. “Catholic men who have been baptized, have undertaken their confirmation, and are practicing members of their local Parish for at least 2 straight years, can be admitted to a seminary to study and become a priest. After completing their studies at the seminary, and serving as a Deacon for a period of 6 months to a year, unmarried males between the ages of 25 and 63 can be ordained as a priest.”

Of course, Catholicism is not alone in their special ordination of a priesthood. Other Christian denominations (e.g. Episcopalian, Latter Day Saints) as well as other religions (e.g. Hinduism, Taoism) delineate special “priests to God.”

how Scripture answers "Who are the priests of God?"

The priests of God are all those that follow Jesus Christ1,2,4, the ultimate High Priest3. Priests of God can be anyone4,5, but only those that have “put on Christ” in baptism5.

the answer above is based on and footnoted with the following Scripture Blocks
But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.
You are a select race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people possessed by and for the God that called you out of darkness and into His marvelous light so that you might proclaim His promises.

Peter is writing to the “elect” of the “dispersion” – Christians that have been scattered throughout Galatia and Asia Minor.  He is encouraging them to stand firm in the face of current persecution and reminding them of the promise they have in and through Christ.

How does it inform?

The apostle Peter describes Christians as “a royal priesthood.”

Does it apply? Yes

John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood and made us a kingdom, priests to his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.
John addressing the seven churches in Asia: Grace and peace from Him who is and was and is to come, and from the seven spirits before His thorn, and from Jesus the true witness, firstborn of the dead and ruler of kings on earth.  To Him who loves and freed us from our sins by His blood and made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father.  To Him be glory and dominion forever. Amen.

John’s opening address to his audience.

How does it inform?

The apostle John addresses his revelation to Christians, describing them as “priests to his God and Father.”

Does it apply? Yes

And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.

And being made perfect/complete – designated by God to be High Priest after the order of Melchizedek – He [Jesus Christ] became the source of eternal salvation for anyone that obeys.

Arguing for those things that are better under the new covenant, the writer is pointing to the better priesthood of which Christ is the High Priest.

How does it inform?

If Jesus is High Priest, His followers (“all who obey him”) would be priests.

Does it apply? Yes

And some of them also I will take for priests and for Levites, says the Lord. For as the new heavens and the new earth that I make shall remain before me, says the Lord, so shall your offspring and your name remain. From new moon to new moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, declares the Lord.

I [God] will take some of them for priests and Levites since your offspring and name will remain before Me just as the new heavens and new earth that I make remain before Me. From new moon to new moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all peoples shall come to worship before Me.

The closing words of Isaiah the prophet.  There are many indications in the immediate context that Isaiah is referring to the oft prophesied “latter days” with statements (e.g. clues) such as:

  • “gather all nations and tongues” (vs 18),
  • “I will set a sign among them” (vs 19),
  • “they shall declare my glory among the nations (vs 19).

All of these statements would be descriptors of first century times.

How does it inform?

God says He will take some from “all flesh” (not just Jews) to be “priests and Levites” in a context that is very likely looking forward to the Christian age.

!! study note: context is extra important here !!

Does it apply? Probably

For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
Whoever has been baptized has been clothed in Christ.  Everyone [that’s been clothed] is one in Jesus Christ, regardless if they are Jew or Greek, slave or free, male or female.

Throughout the entire chapter, Paul is contrasting the former Jewish law and the greater faith in Jesus Christ. He has just stated that those “in Christ” are sons of God.

How does it inform?

All that have “put on Christ” (been baptized), are equal “sons of God” (vs 26).

Does it apply? Yes

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