The New Testament begins with the books called the Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and the accounts of the life of Jesus. Jesus was the Son of God and the promise of the new covenant. But did Jesus live under the new covenant?

How Scripture answers "Did Jesus live under the new covenant?"

Jesus lived under2,3,7 the Old Covenant, observing it throughout His life4,5. He instructed others from the Old Covenant regarding nothing less than eternal life6! It was not until after Jesus’ death1 that the New Covenant took effect.

Answer built on scripture-blocks below

Therefore he is the mediator of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance, since a death has occurred that redeems them from the transgressions committed under the first covenant. For where a will is involved, the death of the one who made it must be established. For a will takes effect only at death, since it is not in force as long as the one who made it is alive.
Therefore, He [Jesus] is the mediator of a new covenant [or will, testament], in order for those that are called to inherit the promise of eternal life because a death occurred redeeming them from sins committed under the old covenant. For where a covenant is involved, the one making it must die for it to take effect. It is not in force when the maker of it is alive.

Hebrews is a letter encouraging Jewish Christians to “hold fast” because their faith in Christ is “better” than the Mosaic law they were under in numerous ways. At this point, the writer is contrasting the tabernacle, priesthood, and sacrifices in place under the Mosaic Law and replaced with Christ and the new covenant.

Scripture-block application to this question

The new covenant didn’t come into existence until after Jesus’ death.

And when they had performed everything according to the Law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own town of Nazareth. And the child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom. And the favor of God was upon him.

After fulfilling all of their duties according to the Law of Moses [while in Jerusalem], they returned home to Nazareth of Galilee. And the child [Jesus] grew stronger and filled with wisdom. And God’s favor was upon him.

The infant Jesus is being presented at the temple to observe what was written in the Law of Moses (vss 22-24).  They encounter Simeon who was a devout Hebrew who had been promised that he would see “the consolation of Israel” (vs 25) before his death.

Scripture-block application to this question

Joseph and Mary did all the things required for Jesus under the Law of Moses.

!! scripture-block context extra important here !!

He was circumcised on the eighth day (vs 21) and they went to go to Jerusalem for purification (vs 22) and sacrifice (vs 23).

But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons.

God the Father sent His Son at the right moment in history. He was a human born under law and sent to adopt those enslaved to law as His own.

Paul’s letter to the churches of Galatia (1:2) in which he warns of “quickly deserting” (1:6) their call to Christ.  He continues this theme through chapter 2 and begins in chapter 3 to the end to connect the promise that God made to Abraham (3:8) with their present freedom in Christ (5:1). His audience is all who “were baptized into Christ” – both Jews and Greeks (3:27).
Scripture-block application to this question

Since Jesus was a Jew2,4, the implication here is that “the law” He was “born under” was the Law of Moses.

The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
Jesus went to Jerusalem for the Jewish Passover.

Jesus has just performed His first public miracle where he turned water into wine at a wedding feast in Cana.

Scripture-block application to this question

Jesus observed Passover.

Then came the day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat it.

Then came the day of Unleavened Bread and the time to sacrifice the Passover lamb. In order for them to partake, Jesus told Peter and John to go and prepare for the Passover.

It is Jesus’ final week and they are preparing to be in the upper room (vs 13). Judas has already betrayed Him to the chief priests (vs 4)

This is also recorded more briefly in Matthew 26:17-19 and more similarly in Mark 14:12-16.

Scripture-block application to this question

Jesus observes His final Passover.

And behold, a lawyer stood up to put him to the test, saying, Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? He said to him, What is written in the Law? How do you read it? And he answered, You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself. And he said to him, You have answered correctly; do this, and you will live.

A lawyer stood to test Jesus and asked him what he should do to inherit eternal life. Jesus in turn responded by asking him what was written and how he interpreted it. The lawyer answered by quoting two verses from the Law. The first was from Deuteronomy and said that one should love God with all his heart. The second was from Leviticus and said that one should love his neighbor as himself. Jesus said he answered correctly and that if he practiced them he would live.

Jesus is in the midst of His public ministry, teaching the people while gaining notoriety. The lawyer quoted two passages in the Law (from
Deuteronomy 6:5
Leviticus 19:18
Scripture-block application to this question

Jesus was asked about how the Old Law instructed about gaining eternal life (and never bothered to correct the Lawyer regarding a current ‘New Covenant’ system).

Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. For because he himself has suffered when tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted.
Therefore he [Jesus] conformed to His kinsmen in all ways so that He could become a merciful and true High Priest of God, the Father, making intercession for the sins of the people. It’s because of the fact He suffered when tempted that He can intercede for those being tempted.

The writer is concluding his introductory argument of Jesus’ supremacy over all of those messengers that for the Jews have come before.  Specifically, he has contrasted Jesus against the prophets and angels by “calling forward” and interpreting several Old Testament prophecies and sayings.

Scripture-block application to this question

Jesus came and was like His Jewish brethren “in every respect”.

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